CBD Oil

Paper effect bottom

CBD oil (Cannabidiol oil) is one of the main substances found in the Cannabis plant. CBD is just one of many compounds found within the cannabis plant but it is not the illegal substance known as THC. CBD oil is one of the primary research components into medicinal Cannabis. There is no established Recommended Daily Amount (RDA) for CBD Oil.

What are the benefits of CBD?

Cannabis has been shown to exert a number of therapeutic effects on various neurological conditions including epilepsy, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain, attributed to the neuroprotective properties of CBD.

Evidence

Epilepsy- A considerable amount of research has been conducted into the effects of CBD in epilepsy. It has been found that CBD can reduce the threshold of seizures (1) including the frequency of seizures (2). Most studies have shown 2–5 mg/kg/day to be beneficial in the treatment of epilepsy (2). A survey of patients seen in an epilepsy centre found that 21% of patients admitted to using marijuana in the last year, and 24% of patients believed marijuana to be effective for their seizures (3).

Cognitive function and mental health- Research in both animals and humans indicates that cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic properties. One double-blind parallel trial which sought to assess the safety and effectiveness of CBD in patients with schizophrenia showed patients who received 1,000mg CBD oil per day for a period of 6 weeks had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms and improvements in general wellbeing compared to the placebo group. Improvements in cognitive function in the CBD Oil group compared to placebo was also noted (4).

Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Multiple Sclerosis– Cannabidiol is believed to have neuroprotective properties (5) due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (6) which can have beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Multiple Sclerosis patients (7). CBD has also been shown to reverse and prevent the development of cognitive defects which are known characteristics of Alzheimer’s Disease. In one study, adult male mice were treated for 3 weeks with 20mg/kg CBD injections following the onset of cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. It was found that recognition memory and social recognition memory were reversed according to Cheng et al (8). To assess the role of CBD in Parkinson’s disease, 21 patients without dementia or psychiatric conditions were treated with either placebo, cannabidiol (CBD) 75 mg/day or CBD 300 mg/day. The groups treated with CBD had a significant improvement in scores determining wellbeing and quality of life compared to placebo (9).

Pain relief– A number of studies have also reported on the potential of cannabidiol as a pain relieving agent. In a study of rats with osteoarthritis, CBD was shown to reduce joint inflammation and prevent the later development of pain and nerve damage in the osteoarthritis (OA) joints, suggesting that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain (10). A further study on rats found that CBD injections reduced pain response to surgical incision (11) while another rat study found that oral CBD treatment significantly reduced sciatic nerve pain and inflammation (12). In a study of 47 people with multiple sclerosis, those treated with an oral spray combination of CBD and THC for one month experienced a significant improvement in pain, walking and muscle spasms, compared to the placebo group (13). Another study found that the same spray containing a combination of CBD and THC significantly improved pain during movement, pain at rest and sleep quality in 58 people with rheumatoid arthritis (14).

Our take on how CBD may help you;

Epilepsy-According to research, CBD oil may help to reduce the frequency of seizures in epileptic patients and therefore a supplement may be beneficial for the management of this condition. N.B Any medical condition such epilepsy should be managed under the supervision of a medical professional.

Pain relief- due to the reported pain-relieving properties of CBD oil, a supplement may provide benefit for the management of conditions such as arthritis and multiple sclerosis or any condition which causes pain and inflammation in the body.

Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Multiple Sclerosis– due to the neuroprotective properties of CBD oil, a supplement may be beneficial in helping to relieve symptoms associated with AD, PD and MS.

Safety and side effects

In terms of safety, CBD has been investigated for its potential side effects and interaction with other medications. The majority of the studies were for the treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders. The outcome of the review confirms CBD is considered safe with a better side effect profile compared to prescription drugs for the treatment of these conditions (Iffland et al, 2017). Furthermore, CBD is considered to be well tolerated in humans with doses up to 600 mg not resulting in psychotic symptoms (Mechoulam et al, 1978). There is no established Tolerable Upper Intake Level for CBD Oil.

References

  1. Wallace MJ, Blair RE, Falenski KW, Martin BR, DeLorenzo RJ. The endogenous cannabinoid system regulates seizure frequency and duration in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;307:129–37
  2. Koo CM, Kang HC: Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy? J Epilepsy Res. 2017 Jun 30;7(1):16-20. doi: 10.14581/jer.17003. eCollection 2017 Jun. Review. PMID: 28775950
  3. Gross DW, Hamm J, Ashworth NL, Quigley D. Marijuana use and epilepsy. Neurology. 2004;62:2095–2097
  4. McGuire P, Robson P, Cubala WJ, Vasile D, Morrison PD, Barron R, Taylor A, Wright S: Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 1;175(3):225-231. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030325. Epub 2017 Dec 15. PMID: 29241357
  5. Esposito G., De Filippis D., Maiuri M. C., De Stefano D., Carnuccio R., Iuvone T. (2006b). Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in β-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-κB involvement. Neurosci. Lett. 399, 91–95. 10.1016/j.neulet.2006.01.047
  6. Mukhopadhyay P., Rajesh M., Horváth B., Bátkai S., Park O., Tanchian G., et al. . (2011). Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signalling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 50, 1368–1381. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.02.021
  7. Mannucci C, Navarra M, Calapai F, Spagnolo EV, Busardò FP, Cas RD, Ippolito FM, Calapai G: Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol; CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2017;16(5):541-553. doi: 10.2174/1871527316666170413114210. Review. PMID: 28412918
  8. Cheng D., Low J. K., Logge W., Garner B., Karl T. (2014a). Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1Δ E9 mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 231, 3009–3017. 10.1007/s00213-014-3478-5
  9. Chagas MH, Zuardi AW, Tumas V, Pena-Pereira MA, Sobreira ET, Bergamaschi MM, dos Santos AC, Teixeira AL, Hallak JE, Crippa JA: Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial; J Psychopharmacol. 2014 Nov;28(11):1088-98. doi: 10.1177/0269881114550355. Epub 2014 Sep 18. PMID: 25237116
  10. Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ: Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017 Dec;158(12):2442-2451. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052 PMID: 28885454
  11. Genaro K, Fabris D, Arantes ALF, Zuardi AW, Crippa JAS, Prado WA Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 21;8:391. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00391. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28680401
  12. Costa B, Trovato AE, Comelli F, Giagnoni G, Colleoni M: The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain; Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Feb 5;556(1-3):75-83. Epub 2006 Nov 10.PMID: 17157290
  13. Russo M, Calabrò RS, Naro A, Sessa E, Rifici C, D’Aleo G, Leo A, De Luca R, Quartarone A, Bramanti P; Sativex in the management of multiple sclerosis-related spasticity: role of the corticospinal modulation. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:656582. doi: 10.1155/2015/656582. Epub 2015 Jan 29. PMID: 25699191
  14. Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS: Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Jan;45(1):50-2. Epub 2005 Nov 9. PMID: 16282192